General Deterioration
Specialised in book restoration
1. Weak materials being
used for back lining,
2. combined with
oxidisation and handling =
binding fell apart.
3. in attempt to keep it
together, adhesive tape was
used = stains remain.
Poor workmanship, flyleaf
not attached properly
causing the torn on joint.
1. thin and weak paper
being used to support the
spine of a 3kg hardcover
3. weak sewing thread
being used to sew this 3kg
2. resulted in text block
detached from bookcase.
4. resulted in lose
signatures in text block.
1. Rubber perished over
time in a Caoutchouc
binding, a binding
technique patented in 1836.
2.  Resulted in leaves fell out.  This
technique was largely abandoned
commercially around 1870, but
revived in the 20th century using
thermos-plastic glues instead of
flexible rubber solution.